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Both films, for example, pore over minutae that may or may not be significant umbrellas dissertation gender language in JFK, a dropped thickshake in The Thin Blue Line to draw the viewer ever more deeply into the world of the crime scene. And both counterpoint different modes of filmmaking as they do so, contrasting invented material filmed in a classical Hollywood style with documentary or faux-documentary footage. Yet while both films have an over-riding concern with the filmmaker uncovering facts, that might be called the dissertation film studies narrative," each constructs a contrasting relationship between the narrative and documentary elements within the text.

This, then, is an example of classical Hollywood-style fictional filmmaking. It also includes a creative writing groups dundee number of re-enactments, which are very often presented in a simulated documentary style grainy or black and white film stock, hand-held cameras. This faux-documentary material is often dissertation film studies with the genuine documentary material in a manner that blends the two together the Zapruder footage is matched by staged footage how do we determine what is right and wrong? similar film stock, and the autopsy photographs essay layout help intercut with shots of a wax dummy of Kennedy.

The Thin Blue Line shares the same "outer" narrative filmmaker investigatingbut the inner narrative the story of Randall Adams is not constructed in a classical Hollywood style. Instead, it is told through one of the standard modes of documentary filmmaking research problem and method paper resume un secret by Bill Nichols5: direct address by participants in an interview format with the interviewer removed through editing.

This "nesting" of different modes might be tabulated as follows:. My point, however, is that the films differ in mode, but use "mirror-image" forms of the same structure. JFK is primarily a fictional film, which employs a documentary style when re-enacting speculated events. The Thin Blue Line is primarily a documentary, but employs a style borrowed from fictional films in its re-enactments.

If the two films share so dissertation film studies in common, and slide so fluidly from documentary to fictional dissertation film studies so quickly, does this suggest the difference in the two forms might be largely cosmetic? Fiction can be used to express truths about the real world, and the documentary is can dissertation film studies used in ways that obscure the truth or construct falsehoods.

If the fundamental difference between fiction and non-fiction is taken as the link to dissertation film studies real, and it is shown that documentaries and fictions share similar relationships to the real, then the two forms start to look more alike: not the same, exactly, but similar. They share the same structure and the "fiction" versus "documentary" dichotomy is more like a difference in genre than a fundamental distinction. This is not to invest the superficial crossover of techniques between the two forms with a significance it does not posses. Define: essay are not fictions just because The Blair Witch Project does such a good job dissertation film studies pretending to be a real document, or even because Rats in the Ranks works so well as a narrative.

That there is such reluctance to accept "truth" at face value in documentary should not be surprising. Early — or classic — film studies was based largely on arguments about the relationships between film and reality. While this debate is too detailed to fully explore, it is important to touch upon briefly because much writing upon documentary echoes the arguments of these early writers. The direct link to reality might be seen as a defining geballe dissertation prize fellow of the documentary, but it was also seen in the first half of the century as one of the defining features of the film medium itself.

The dissertation film studies appeared to essay about bullying in schools spm an even more perfect dissertation film studies for mechanically reproducing reality dissertation film studies the still photographs that preceded it. This added urgency to arguments of communication by internet essay that centred on whether the role texas a&m dissertations online the artist was to attempt to recreate the real world, or rather to interpret or even transcend the real.

Of more interest to the current discussion, however, are early "anti-realists" such as Rudolf Arnheim. Perception of depth is lost. In the black and white cinema with reference to which Arnheim formulated his thesis, colour is eliminated. Lighting distorts. Editing interrupts the flow of time and creates dissertation film studies possibilities through the use of montage.

Non-visual stimulus is absent or, after the coming of sound, limitedand even the visual world is limited by the edge of the screen. This catalogue of distortions is, for Arnheim, the very basis for the creation of aesthetic systems by which dissertation film studies can signify meanings. After establishing the above points, he sets about demonstrating how each of these limitations in depicting the real is used as a method of artistic expression8. Given that such formulations are at the foundation of later film theory, it should not be surprising that they were echoed answer my geometry homework subsequent theorists turned their minds to issues regarding documentary, and particularly its relation to the real.

However, as Dissertation film studies puts it, "[d]irect cinema opened a can of worms and then got eaten by them. For the distortions of reality that were identified by Arnheim are equally present leather bound dissertation documentary essays on faith in god, but with different implications. Instead of being the unambiguously positive means to artistic expression, every limitation of the medium is instead a problematic point of mediation by the filmmaker. Aaa cover letter limitations of the film frame, for example, force choices upon even the most non-interventionist direct cinema filmmaker.

And with every dissertation film studies definition of dissertation proposal filmmaker is placing the film at a greater distance from reality. Carroll quotes Eric Barnouw making this point:. To be sure, some documentarists claim to be objective — a dissertation sales management that seems to renounce an interpretive role. The claim may be strategic, but it is surely meaningless.

The documentarist, like any communicator in any medium, makes endless choices. He [sic] selects topics, people, vistas, angles, lens, juxtapositions, sounds, words. Each selection is an expression of his point of view, whether he is aware of it or not, whether he acknowledges it or not. Even behind the first step, selection of a topic, there is a motive… It is in selecting and arranging his findings that he expresses himself; these choices are, in effect, comments. And whether he adopts the stance planning masters dissertation observer, or chronicler or whatever, he cannot escape his subjectivity. He presents his version of the world.

Such an argument certainly seems to cast doubt over the potential for objectivity in documentary cinema. Carried to an extreme, it is the presentation of a "version of the world" rather than the world itself that can be seen as rendering documentary a form of fiction. Either way, the prospects for documentary "truth" in such a model seem grim indeed. It should be noted that Carroll puts little faith in such an approach dissertation film studies documentary, and his counter-argument will be returned to.

Before doing so, however, it dissertation film studies worth noting that more recently, Carroll has drawn the distinction between what he calls the dissertation film studies argument recited above and more "global" postmodern scepticism of claims to truth. For example, historical accounts impose a narrative structure onto events to make them intelligible, and a distinction must be drawn between the dissertation film studies events which actually occurred and the account which lacks an independent historical existence :. But the narratives in which those states of affairs and events figure are inventions, constructions, indeed, fictions. The narrative structure in the historical recounting is not true or false; it is fictional.

This point of such an observation may seem dream or reality essay little obscure. If the narrative structure imposed in a historical account is considered independently of the statements of dissertation film studies fact that it is used to explain, then of course it must be considered fictional. Certainly the argument is here being posed by Carroll albeit following Michael Renov and Hayden Dissertation film studies as a dissertation film studies to arguing that it is unsupportable However, Carroll also refers to an alternative model for looking at the link between non-fiction and fiction, mounted by Bill Nichols in his book Representing Reality, which is more subtle and worth dealing with directly.

Nichols, unlike the other theorists alluded to by Carroll, does not argue that documentaries must be considered fiction. He recognises that the existence of an external, real-world referent is an important distinction that cannot be dismissed as irrelevant. The world of a fiction film is "a unique, imaginary domain," but the world of documentary is different: "Instead of a world, we are offered access dissertation film studies the world. Dissertation film studies claim to representation of the real means that documentaries are not simply narratives: they dissertation film studies also argumentative, if only in the sense that they make claims even if only implicitly about what is true. They are therefore a "fiction un like any other. While the documentary is distinguished from fiction by its links to the real, this representation is rendered problematic by the apparent impossibility of rendering truth objectively.

Documentaries, while not group art projects for adults, share with dissertation film studies. It, too, is a way of representing the world that denies its own processes of construction and their formative effect. Documentaries do make claims dissertation film studies the truth that are open to evaluation, but unfortunately, according to Nichols, our institutional mechanisms for assessing such claims are themselves suspect. If such an approach is accepted, evaluation of the arguments made by Oliver Stone dissertation film studies Errol Morris might be highly problematic.

Carroll, however, is not willing to concede that any of these arguments establish either that non-fiction is a form of fiction, or that objectivity is impossible. Firstly, he argues that the cinema does not posses any unique tendency as a conclusion essay bias compared to other media. The help with essay for college application arguments about selectivity that Barnouw raises with respect to film are equally applicable to other media and fields of enquiry.

Thus if non-fiction film is said to be subjective due to its selectivity, so must any field of human enquiry, such as bitcoin dissertation pdf and science. In the earlier of the two articles I have discussed written inCarroll is confident that such a wide-ranging scepticism would not be seriously proposed. Nevertheless, in dissertation editor salary defence against the selectivity argument is based dissertation film studies the notion dissertations on innovation objectivity.

In any given field of argument, at any given time, there are patterns of dissertation film studies, standards for observation, and methods for assessing evidence which are used for getting to the truth. Likewise, non-fiction films may be assessed against similar codes, and will be considered biased or subjective if they fail to meet them. That mla style essay may make bias possible, or even likely, does not preclude the possibility of a film according with established standards of objectivity.

The obvious differences between the real world and the filmed presentation prevent film from substituting for lived experience, but they do not prevent documentaries from being objective. This central assumption of this dissertation film studies — that there are standards of objectivity that can be used to judge the truth — is exactly the assumption that we have seen Bill Nichols question.

Firstly, he does not accept that objectivity demands that a film call attention to its processes of construction. After all, the fact that a essays writing services uk film is constructed is understood by any audience and does dissertation film studies need to be spelt out. A "belief in the self-evident nature of facts", for example, might be a political assumption when the facts being presented are politically charged falsehoods.

Yet the acceptance that some claims of self-evident truth are suspect does not mean that there can be no self-evident facts. With regards to rhetorical persuasion, he argues that films can either eschew such devices altogether he cites nature documentaries as an example ,21 or employ rhetorical structures in the service of objective discourse. The linking thread of the arguments he presents is that the theorists he criticises have mistaken the difficulty in presenting objective truth for an impossibility, often by focussing on exactly the texts where the truth is most problematic.

It is worth returning to The Thin Blue Line and JFK at this point, since these films both explore events that are subject to considerable conjecture. Neither could be accused of assuming the truth about these events is self-evident endgame samuel beckett critical essays the oppositeyet both nevertheless ultimately make vital factual claims. As noted already, these sujet dissertation dom juan question state-sanctioned verdicts, and both films led to a public discussion that forced official re-examination of the cases: The Thin Blue Line forced the retrial of Randall Adams, while JFK contributed to the passing of the President John F.

The Kennedy assassination, for obvious reasons, is a much more familiar event and one that had been the subject of considerably dissertation film studies public discussion than the Randall Adams prosecution. However, the difference in the reception of the two films cannot be explained simply through reference to the argument each presents. In his consideration of JFK, Robert Rosenstone notes that there are considerable dissertation film studies over the depiction of historical events on the screen.

While he is referring to narrative features such as JFK, his argument is equally sujet dissertation dom juan to the summaries of and suppositions regarding dissertation film studies in The Thin Blue Line. Like Carroll, Rosenstone argues that when a historical filmmaker such as Stone invents or compresses events, he or she is exercising the same type of discretion that the author of any written history must.

The problem, notes Rosenstone, is that the verification must occur outside the world of the film. When Stone argues in JFK that President Kennedy was about creative writing summer programs houston withdraw troops from Vietnam, the information is justified by reference to a real memorandum National Security Action Memobut a dissertation film studies character makes the reference. Assuming no foreknowledge of the case, the audience dissertation film studies no way while watching the film of even knowing that the memorandum really existed, let alone being sure that it supports the conclusion Stone draws.

If they do so, they will, as Rosenstone states, be undertaking the same kind of critique and review dissertation film studies a work of written history is subjected to. This process of measuring a film against standards buy online essays objectivity is exactly that which Carroll highlights as the means of linking non-fiction films to the truth.

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